Variability in waxy (Wx) allele, in-vitro starch digestibility, glycemic response and textural behaviour of popular Northern Himalayan rice varieties

Sci Rep. 2021 Jun 8;11(1):12047. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-91537-0.


Eight commonly cultivated and consumed rice varieties of Northern Himalayan regions and a popular high amylose rice variety were characterized at Wx locus and evaluated for resistant starch (RS), in-vitro starch digestibility, predicted glycemic index (pGI), glycemic load (GL) and textural parameters. Cytosine and thymine repeats (CT)n at waxy locus (Wx) showed high association with apparent amylose content (AAC). Both pGI and GL varied substantially within the selected varieties. The pGI was relatively lower in high and intermediate amylose Indica varieties compared to low amylose Japonica ones. However, Koshikari despite being a low amylose variety showed relatively lower pGI and GL, due to its higher RS, dietary fiber, protein and fat content. It was thus presumed that in addition to AAC, RS and other grain components also affect the glycemic response. Inherent resistance to enzymatic hydrolysis was also found to be higher in firm textured and less sticky rice varieties. The genotypes-Lalat, Basmati-1509 and Koshikari, in view of their low to moderate pGI and relatively higher RS content, can be explored in future breeding programmes to develop rice varieties whose consumption will help to prevent hyper/hypo glycemic responses in Northern Himalayan regions, where daily staple diet is rice.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Alleles*
  • Amylose* / genetics
  • Amylose* / metabolism
  • Genotype*
  • Glycemic Index*
  • Oryza* / genetics
  • Oryza* / metabolism
  • Plant Breeding


  • Amylose