Guidelines for clinical trials of frontal fibrosing alopecia: consensus recommendations from the International FFA Cooperative Group (IFFACG)

Br J Dermatol. 2021 Dec;185(6):1221-1231. doi: 10.1111/bjd.20567. Epub 2021 Aug 13.


Background: Frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA) has become one of the most common causes of cicatricial alopecia worldwide. However, there is a lack of clear aetiology and robust clinical trial evidence for the efficacy and safety of agents currently used for treatment.

Objectives: To enable data to be collected worldwide on FFA using common criteria and assessment methods.

Methods: A multicentre, international group of experts in hair loss was convened by email to create consensus recommendations for clinical trials. Consensus was defined at > 90% agreement on each recommended part of these guidelines.

Results: Standardized diagnostic criteria, severity rating, staging, and investigator and patient assessment of scalp hair loss and other clinical features of FFA were created.

Conclusions: These guidelines should allow the collection of reliable aggregate data on FFA and advance efforts in both clinical and basic research to close knowledge gaps in this condition.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Alopecia* / drug therapy
  • Cicatrix / drug therapy
  • Cicatrix / etiology
  • Clinical Trials as Topic*
  • Consensus
  • Guidelines as Topic*
  • Humans
  • Lichen Planus* / pathology
  • Scalp / pathology