Varicocele Embolization: Patient Selection: Preprocedure Workup, and Technical Considerations

Semin Intervent Radiol. 2021 Jun;38(2):176-181. doi: 10.1055/s-0041-1727105. Epub 2021 Jun 3.


Varicocele refers to an abnormally dilated and tortuous pampiniform venous plexus within the spermatic cord. The prevalence of varicocele is reported to be approximately 15% in the general male population. Its incidence increases with age and has a higher incidence in infertile men. Varicocele treatment (surgical or interventional) is considered one of the most common therapies of reversible infertility in men. Percutaneous embolization offers nonsurgical, minimally invasive option for the treatment of varicoceles, requiring only minimal sedation. In this article, the authors review the clinical and technical details of percutaneous varicocele embolization with a summary of currently available evidence.

Keywords: embolization; infertility; interventional radiology; varicocele.

Publication types

  • Review