Myogenetic Oligodeoxynucleotide (myoDN) Recovers the Differentiation of Skeletal Muscle Myoblasts Deteriorated by Diabetes Mellitus

Front Physiol. 2021 May 24;12:679152. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2021.679152. eCollection 2021.

Abstract

Skeletal muscle wasting in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) is a complication of decreased muscle mass and strength, and is a serious risk factor that may result in mortality. Deteriorated differentiation of muscle precursor cells, called myoblasts, in DM patients is considered to be one of the causes of muscle wasting. We recently developed myogenetic oligodeoxynucleotides (myoDNs), which are 18-base single-strand DNAs that promote myoblast differentiation by targeting nucleolin. Herein, we report the applicability of a myoDN, iSN04, to myoblasts isolated from patients with type 1 and type 2 DM. Myogenesis of DM myoblasts was exacerbated concordantly with a delayed shift of myogenic transcription and induction of interleukins. Analogous phenotypes were reproduced in healthy myoblasts cultured with excessive glucose or palmitic acid, mimicking hyperglycemia or hyperlipidemia. iSN04 treatment recovered the deteriorated differentiation of plural DM myoblasts by downregulating myostatin and interleukin-8 (IL-8). iSN04 also ameliorated the impaired myogenic differentiation induced by glucose or palmitic acid. These results demonstrate that myoDNs can directly facilitate myoblast differentiation in DM patients, making them novel candidates for nucleic acid drugs to treat muscle wasting in patients with DM.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus; myoblast; myogenetic oligodeoxynucleotide; myogenic differentiation; skeletal muscle.