Background: Short peripheral intravenous catheters (PIVCs) fail prior to completion of therapy in up to 63% of hospitalizations. This unacceptably high rate of failure has become the norm for the most common invasive procedure in all of medicine. Securement strategies may improve PIVC survival.
Methods: We conducted a prospective, single-site, parallel, two-arm randomized controlled investigation with a primary outcome of catheter failure comparing securement with standard semi-permeable dressing and clear tape (SPD) to standard semipermeable dressing and clear tape with cyanoacrylate glue (SPD + CG). Adult emergency department patients with a short PIVC and anticipated hospital duration ⩾ 48 h were enrolled and followed until IV failure or completion of therapy for up to 7 days. Secondary outcomes included complications and cost comparisons between groups. Primary outcome was assessed by intention to treat and per protocol analyses.
Findings: 350 patients were enrolled between November 2019 and October 2020. PIVC survival for SPD + CG was similar to SPD group with the absolute risk difference of IV failure in the intention-to-treat (-5.8%, p = 0.065) population and improved in the per protocol (-8.1%, p = 0.04) population, respectively. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis indicated there was a significant benefit of the SPD + CG at greater than 2 days of hospitalization (p = 0.04). Prior to 48 h, there was no survival enhancement to either group (p = 0.98) in the intention to treat population. In a multivariable analysis with piecewise Cox regression, when the IV was functional greater than 48 h, the risk of IV failure in the SPD + CG was 43% less than the SPD group (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.57, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.34 to 0.97; p = 0.04). Cumulative cost related to IV during hospitalization was similar between groups with a lower incremental rescue cost in the SPD + CG group.
Interpretation: SPD combined with cyanoacrylate glue provides similar benefit to patients compared to SPD alone and potentially improves short PIVC survival when the IV was inserted >48 h. As this strategy is cost neutral, it could be considered in admitted patients, particularly those with longer anticipated hospital durations.
Keywords: IV failure; IV securement; cost analysis; cyanoacrylate glue; dressing; tissue adhesive.