Adv Food Nutr Res. 2021:96:89-121. doi: 10.1016/bs.afnr.2021.02.013. Epub 2021 May 24.


Potassium is an essential nutrient that performs a vital role in cellular functions including maintaining fluid balance and osmolality of cells. Potassium balance is maintained by the kidney and the majority of ingested potassium is excreted in the urine. There is strong evidence of a negative association between dietary potassium and blood pressure, and some evidence (much of it indirect) of negative associations between dietary potassium and cardiovascular disease (particularly stroke and coronary heart disease) and kidney disease (chronic renal failure, and kidney stones). Blood pressure lowering is particularly associated with high potassium and low sodium diets. Important dietary sources of potassium include fruit and vegetables (including rice, potatoes, legumes and wholegrains), dairy products, and animal proteins. Worldwide, diets are low in potassium compared to dietary guidelines. Interventions focused on increasing dietary potassium will have major benefits including improvements in diet, reducing non-communicable disease and enhancing planetary health.

Keywords: Blood pressure; Cardiovascular disease; Diet; Fruit; Kidney; Population; Potassium; Sodium; Vegetables.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Blood Pressure
  • Diet
  • Potassium*
  • Potassium, Dietary*
  • Vegetables


  • Potassium, Dietary
  • Potassium