Primary Hyperaldosteronism and Renal Medullary Nephrocalcinosis: A Controversial Association

Oman Med J. 2021 May 31;36(3):e266. doi: 10.5001/omj.2021.32. eCollection 2021 May.


Primary hyperaldosteronism (PA) is a common disease with a prevalence of 5-10% in unselected patients with hypertension. Medullary nephrocalcinosis is a radiological diagnosis and refers to diffuse calcification in the renal parenchyma. The three commonest causes of nephrocalcinosis are hyperparathyroidism, distal renal tubular acidosis, and medullary sponge kidney. PA is not a recognized cause of nephrocalcinosis. There are a few case reports linking PA with nephrocalcinosis published till date. In this case series, we report three cases where PA was possibly associated with medullary nephrocalcinosis. In all three cases, the common causes of nephrocalcinosis were excluded by careful clinical history, biochemical evaluation, and radiological findings. We conclude and emphasize that a diagnosis of PA as an etiology of medullary nephrocalcinosis should be sought after common causes have been excluded, at least in those with hypertension that is difficult to control.

Keywords: Hyperaldosteronism; Hypertension; Hypokalemia; Kidney Diseases; Nephrocalcinosis.

Publication types

  • Case Reports