An evaluation of canagliflozin for the treatment of type 2 diabetes: an update

Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2021 Nov;22(16):2087-2094. doi: 10.1080/14656566.2021.1939675. Epub 2021 Jun 11.


IntroductionSodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2is) are proven to ameliorate kidney and heart failure in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), in addition to improving glycemic controls. Canagliflozin is a SGLT2i and has proved beneficial for kidney and heart diseases in addition to decreasing the incidence of the composite outcomes of cardiovascular diseases and stroke.Areas coveredThis paper reviews the development of canagliflozin and its effects on renal dysfunction, heart failure, and vascular diseases.Expert opinionCanagliflozin contributes to the inhibition of renal function, decline progression and, therefore, is effective for T2D patients with chronic kidney dysfunction and albuminuria. The Canagliflozin Cardiovascular Assessment Study (CANVAS) revealed that patients showed increased incidence of amputation via unknown mechanisms, which has not been observed in other studies that used real-world data. Moreover, canagliflozin has been proven effective for anemia-associated outcomes of chronic kidney failure. Meta-analyses have revealed that canagliflozin contributed to lower diastolic blood pressure when compared with other SGLT2is. A subanalysis of CANVAS data proved that canagliflozin reduced the risk of hemorrhagic stroke. Canagliflozin should be used for T2D patients with chronic kidney failure and/or albuminuria and those with vascular diseases, with monitoring for ulcers and/or the pulse on the lower limb.

Keywords: Amputation; canagliflozin; kidney disease; review.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Albuminuria
  • Canagliflozin / therapeutic use
  • Cardiovascular Diseases* / epidemiology
  • Cardiovascular Diseases* / etiology
  • Cardiovascular Diseases* / prevention & control
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2* / complications
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2* / drug therapy
  • Humans
  • Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors* / therapeutic use


  • Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors
  • Canagliflozin