Affinity Proteomics Assays for Cardiovascular and Atherosclerotic Disease Biomarkers

Methods Mol Biol. 2021:2344:163-179. doi: 10.1007/978-1-0716-1562-1_12.


Systematic exploration of the dynamic human plasma proteome enables the discovery of novel protein biomarkers. Using state-of-the-art technologies holds the promise to facilitate a better diagnosis and risk prediction of diseases. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) pathophysiology is characterized for unbalancing of processes such as vascular inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, or lipid profiles among others. Such processes have a direct impact on the dynamic and complex composition of blood and hence the plasma proteome. Therefore, the study of the plasma proteome comprises an excellent exploratory source of biomarker research particularly for CVD. We describe the protocol for performing the discovery of protein biomarker candidates using the suspension bead array technology. The process does not require depletion steps to remove abundant proteins and consumes only a few microliters of sample from the body fluid of interest. The approach is scalable to measure many analytes as well as large numbers of samples. Moreover, we describe a bead-assisted antibody-labeling process that helps to develop quantitative assays for validation purposes and facilitate the translation of the identified candidates into clinical studies.

Keywords: Affinity proteomics; Antibody; High-throughput; Multiplexity; Novel biomarkers; Plasma proteome.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / blood*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / physiopathology
  • Humans
  • Proteome / analysis*
  • Proteomics*


  • Biomarkers
  • Proteome