Evaluation of avascular necrosis risk factors after closed reduction for developmental dysplasia of the hip before walking age

J Pediatr Orthop B. 2021 Jun 9. doi: 10.1097/BPB.0000000000000846. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head is one of the most important complications after closed reduction and spica cast application in developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) treatment. This study aims to put forth the impact of closed reduction age and other factors which can cause AVN. Inclusion criteria of the study were: closed reduction and spica cast application before walking age (12 months) and minimum 2 years duration of follow-up. The presence of femoral head ossific nucleus, International Hip Dysplasia Institute (IHDI) score, acetabular indices and AVN were evaluated from radiographies. Hip abduction angles were evaluated on CT images. The absence of the ossific nucleus at the closed reduction time and preoperative IHDI grade were not significant risk factors for AVN (respectively OR = 2.83; 95% CI, 0.99-8.07; P = 0.052; OR = 2.5; 95% CI, 0.85-7.32; P = 0.094). For the patients older than 10 months, (1) the absence of the ossific nucleus was a significant risk factor for grade 2 or higher AVN according to the Bucholz Ogden criteria (P = 0.020) and (2) the higher preoperative IHDI grade (IHDI 3-4) was a significant risk factor for AVN (P = 0.032). AVN of the femoral head was a significant risk factor for fair or poor clinical outcome (P = 0.001). It is not reasonable to wait for radiological visibility of the ossific nucleus to prevent femoral head AVN before applying closed reduction and spica cast, irrespective of the age interval.