Review of epidemic, containment strategies, clinical management, and economic evaluation of COVID-19 pandemic

J Formos Med Assoc. 2021 Jun;120 Suppl 1:S6-S18. doi: 10.1016/j.jfma.2021.05.022. Epub 2021 May 27.


The spread of the emerging pathogen, named as SARS-CoV-2, has led to an unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic since 1918 influenza pandemic. This review first sheds light on the similarity on global transmission, surges of pandemics, and the disparity of prevention between two pandemics. Such a brief comparison also provides an insight into the potential sequelae of COVID-19 based on the inference drawn from the fact that a cascade of successive influenza pandemic occurred after 1918 and also the previous experience on the epidemic of SARS and MERS occurring in 2003 and 2015, respectively. We then propose a systematic framework for elucidating emerging infectious disease (EID) such as COVID-19 with a panorama viewpoint from natural infection and disease process, public health interventions (non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) and vaccine), clinical treatments and therapies (antivirals), until global aspects of health and economic loss, and economic evaluation of interventions with emphasis on mass vaccination. This review not only concisely delves for evidence-based scientific literatures from the origin of outbreak, the spread of SARS-CoV-2 to three surges of pandemic, and NPIs and vaccine uptakes but also provides a new insight into how to apply big data analytics to identify unprecedented discoveries through COVID-19 pandemic scenario embracing from biomedical to economic viewpoints.

Keywords: 1918 influenza pandemic; COVID-19; Clinical management; Containment strategy; Economic evaluation.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • COVID-19* / economics
  • COVID-19* / epidemiology
  • COVID-19* / prevention & control
  • Cost-Benefit Analysis
  • Humans
  • Influenza, Human / epidemiology
  • Influenza, Human / prevention & control
  • Pandemics / prevention & control
  • SARS-CoV-2