Feasibility and acceptability of mindful recovery opioid use care continuum (M-ROCC): A concurrent mixed methods study

J Subst Abuse Treat. 2021 Nov:130:108415. doi: 10.1016/j.jsat.2021.108415. Epub 2021 Apr 15.


As opioid overdose deaths increase, buprenorphine/naloxone (B/N) treatment is expanding, yet almost half of patients are not retained in B/N treatment. Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) designed to promote non-judgmental awareness of present moment experience may be complementary to B/N treatment and offer the potential to enhance retention by reducing substance use and addressing comorbid symptoms. In this pilot study, we examined the feasibility and acceptability of the Mindful Recovery OUD Care Continuum (M-ROCC), a trauma-informed, motivationally sensitive, 24-week MBI. Participants (N = 18) were adults with Opioid Use Disorder prescribed B/N. The study team conducted assessments of satisfaction, mindfulness levels, and home practice, as well as qualitative interviews at 4 and 24-weeks. M-ROCC was feasible in a sample with high rates of childhood trauma and comorbid psychiatric diagnoses with 89% of participants retained at 4-weeks and 72% at 24-weeks. Positive qualitative interview responses and a high rate of participants willing to refer a friend (100%) demonstrates program acceptability. Participant mindfulness increased from baseline to 24-weeks (β = 0.24, p = 0.001, d = 0.51), and increases were correlated with informal mindfulness practice frequency (r = 0.7, p < 0.01). Although limited by small sample size, this pilot study highlights the feasibility and acceptability of integrating MBIs into standard primary care Office-Based Opioid Treatment (OBOT) among a population with substantial trauma history.

Keywords: Buprenorphine; Mindfulness; Mixed methods; Opioid use disorder; Retention.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Analgesics, Opioid / therapeutic use
  • Continuity of Patient Care
  • Feasibility Studies
  • Humans
  • Mindfulness*
  • Opioid-Related Disorders* / drug therapy
  • Pilot Projects


  • Analgesics, Opioid