Gene Expression of CRAL_TRIO Family Proteins modulated by Vitamin E Deficiency in Zebrafish (Danio Rerio)

J Nutr Biochem. 2021 Nov;97:108801. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2021.108801. Epub 2021 Jun 10.


An evaluation of the impact of vitamin E deficiency on expression of the alpha-tocopherol transfer protein (α-TTP) and related CRAL_TRIO genes was undertaken using livers from adult zebrafish based on the hypothesis that increased lipid peroxidation would modulate gene expression. Zebrafish were fed either a vitamin E sufficient (E+) or deficient (E-) diet for 9 months, then fish were euthanized, and livers were harvested. Livers from the E+ relative to E- fish contained 40-times more α-tocopherol (P <0.0001) and one fourth the malondialdehyde (P = 0.0153). RNA was extracted from E+ and E- livers, then subject to evaluation of gene expression of ttpa and other genes of the CRAL_TRIO family, genes of antioxidant markers, and genes related to lipid metabolism. Ttpa expression was not altered by vitamin E status. However, one member of the CRAL_TRIO family, tyrosine-protein phosphatase non-receptor type 9 gene (ptpn9a), showed a 2.4-fold increase (P = 0.029) in E- relative to E+ livers. Further, we identified that the gene for choline kinase alpha (chka) showed a 3.0-fold increase (P = 0.010) in E- livers. These outcomes are consistent with our previous findings that show vitamin E deficiency increased lipid peroxidation causing increases in phospholipid turnover.

Keywords: Alpha-tocopherol transfer protein (α-TTP); CRAL_TRIO; Choline; Ptpn9a; SEC14.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antioxidants
  • Carrier Proteins / genetics*
  • Carrier Proteins / metabolism
  • Choline Kinase / genetics
  • Choline Kinase / metabolism
  • Gene Expression*
  • Lipid Metabolism / genetics
  • Liver / metabolism*
  • Malondialdehyde / metabolism
  • Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Non-Receptor / genetics*
  • Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Non-Receptor / metabolism
  • Vitamin E Deficiency / genetics*
  • Vitamin E Deficiency / metabolism
  • Zebrafish
  • Zebrafish Proteins / genetics*
  • Zebrafish Proteins / metabolism
  • alpha-Tocopherol / metabolism


  • Antioxidants
  • Carrier Proteins
  • Zebrafish Proteins
  • alpha-tocopherol transfer protein
  • Malondialdehyde
  • Choline Kinase
  • PTPN9a protein, zebrafish
  • Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Non-Receptor
  • alpha-Tocopherol