Dynamic Serial Cytokine Measurements During Intravenous Ca-DTPA Chelation in Gadolinium Deposition Disease and Gadolinium Storage Condition: A Pilot Study

Invest Radiol. 2022 Jan 1;57(1):71-76. doi: 10.1097/RLI.0000000000000803.


Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of measuring early changes in serum cytokine levels after intravenous diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Ca-DTPA) chelation in patients manifesting either gadolinium deposition disease (GDD) or gadolinium storage condition (GSC) and the possible usefulness of this method in further research.

Methods: Four patients with recent-onset GDD (≤1 year) and 2 patients with long-standing GSC (4 and 9 years) underwent chelation with intravenous bolus administration of Ca-DTPA. Multiple blood draws were performed to measure serum cytokines: at T = 0 (before Ca-DTPA injection) and 1, 5, 10, 30, 60 minutes, and 24 hours after Ca-DTPA injection. Patients rated the severity of GDD symptom flare at 24 hours. The 24-hour urine Gd amounts were measured prechelation and for the 24 hours after chelation. Serum samples were analyzed blind to whether patients had GDD or GSC but with knowledge of the time points characterizing each sample.

Results: Urine samples for both GDD and GSC patients showed increases in Gd postchelation. All GDD patients experienced flare reactions postchelation; the 2 GSC patients did not. Two cytokines, EGF and sCD40L, peaked at 30 minutes postchelation in at least 4 of the 6 participants. Three cytokines, ENA78/CXCL5, EOTAXIN/CCL11, and LEPTIN, peaked at 24 hours in at least 4 of the 6 participants. Two participants were high outliers for a large number of cytokines across time points. No clear distinction between GDD and GSC was apparent from the cytokine patterns, although differences were present.

Conclusions: This pilot study describes precise temporal resolution (in the range of minutes) after a cytokine-inciting event. Select cytokines exhibited peak values at different time points. At this preliminary stage of investigation, peak cytokine release seems to reflect the amount of Gd mobilized rather than the severity of the patient symptomatic reaction. Too few subjects were studied to support statistical analysis between GDD and GSC groups, although differences were observed through visual data analysis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Contrast Media
  • Cytokines
  • Gadolinium DTPA
  • Gadolinium*
  • Humans
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Organometallic Compounds*
  • Pentetic Acid
  • Pilot Projects


  • Contrast Media
  • Cytokines
  • Organometallic Compounds
  • Pentetic Acid
  • Gadolinium
  • Gadolinium DTPA