Early diagnosis of lateral meningocele syndrome in an infant without neurological symptoms based on genomic analysis

Childs Nerv Syst. 2022 Mar;38(3):659-663. doi: 10.1007/s00381-021-05232-6. Epub 2021 Jun 13.


Lateral meningocele syndrome is characterized by multiple lateral meningoceles with a distinctive craniofacial appearance, hyperextensibility of the skin, and hypermobility of the joints. The syndrome is caused by heterozygous truncating variants in the last exon, exon 33, of the NOTCH3 gene. Here, we present a 2-year-old girl for whom an early genomic analysis allowed us to recognize the presence of lateral meningoceles and to begin early monitoring of her condition for possible neurological complications. She had a characteristic facial appearance, hyperextensibility of the skin and mobility of the joints, and developmental delays. Given that lateral meningocele syndrome is a rare syndrome, the existence of lateral meningoceles is suspected only when the causative gene is detected by genetic testing. MRI scans are unlikely to be performed in infancy in the absence of neurological symptoms suggestive of meningoceles. No formal guidelines have been established for the neurosurgical indications for lateral meningocele syndrome. Given the features of hyperextensibility of the skin and hypermobility of the joints, lateral meningocele syndrome can be categorized as a connective tissue disease and may be progressive, as with the dural ectasia in Marfan syndrome and Loeys-Dietz syndrome. Watchful monitoring of dural ectasia may be warranted in patients with lateral meningocele syndrome.

Keywords: Dural ectasia; Exome analysis; Lateral meningocele syndrome; NOTCH3.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Abnormalities, Multiple* / genetics
  • Child, Preschool
  • Early Diagnosis
  • Female
  • Genomics
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Meningocele* / diagnostic imaging
  • Meningocele* / genetics

Supplementary concepts

  • Lateral meningocele syndrome