Outcomes of Thrombolytic Therapy of Tunnelled Hemodialysis Catheter Dysfunction

Vasc Endovascular Surg. 2021 Jun 14;15385744211023292. doi: 10.1177/15385744211023292. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Introduction: Intraluminal thrombolytic therapy is the first step treatment of thrombotic malfunction of tunneled hemodialysis catheters (THC). The factors that affect catheter restoration and also catheter survival following thrombolytic therapy are not well described. In this study, we aimed to reveal the predictors that affect the success of the procedure and also present post-restoration catheter patency after intraluminal thrombolytic administration.

Method: This retrospective study included 62 patients with tunneled THC thrombosis treated with alteplase between 2017 and2020 in the study center. Age, comorbidities, the use of antiplatelet and anticoagulants, a history of catheter thrombosis, time on dialysis, the duration of the catheter were investigated as possible predictors of procedural success. The independent predictive factors for procedural success were evaluated by using backward stepwise likelihood ratio logistic regression analysis. Primaryand assisted patencieswere presented with Kaplan-Meier graphs.

Results: Thrombolityc was administered to 62 patients 102 times. The median primary patency from the first thrombolytic administration to a second catheter thrombosis was 9 months (range 1-20 months). The overall median patency was 12 months (range 2-23 months). The overall procedural success rate was 79.4% (81/102).Multivariate analyses revealed that a history of prior catheter thrombosis was the only risk factor for procedural success (OR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.26-0.91; p = 0.004). The need for a second dwell time among patients with prior history of thrombolysis was significantly higher compared to patients without a history of catheter thrombosis (12/26 patients, 46.2% and 6/55 patients, 10.9%; respectively; p = 0.001).

Conclusion: The success of thrombolysis in subsequent de novo THC thrombosis decreases in patients who previously required intraluminal thrombolytic administration. Identifying patient subgroups with a high risk for THC thrombosis may be useful to investigate effective secondary prevention strategies.

Keywords: catheter obstruction; central venous catheter; dialysis; thrombosis; tissue plasminogen activator.