A Novel Modification of Woodward Procedure for Correction of Sprengel Deformity by Application of Anchoring Sutures

Indian J Orthop. 2020 Jul 2;55(Suppl 1):189-198. doi: 10.1007/s43465-020-00187-3. eCollection 2021 May.


Purpose: To report the functional and cosmetic results of cases with Sprengel deformity (SD) who underwent a novel technical modification in Woodward procedure for severe SD comprising of lowering of the scapula followed by stabilization of scapula with application of anchoring sutures.

Materials and methods: Twenty-three children were operated at a mean age of 6.6 ± 2.5 years (range 3.4-11 years) and followed up for a mean period of 5.51 ± 1.98 years.

Results: The mean Cavendish score of the patients before procedure of 3.2 ± 0.45 was reduced to 1.7 ± 0.56 (p < 0.001) after the surgery. All patients improved in global shoulder abduction. The mean preoperative abduction of 97° ± 15.2° increased to a mean of 149° ± 14.1° post-operatively (p < 0.001). Significant improvement was also observed in mean Rigault grades after surgical intervention using anchoring suture modification of Woodward procedure. The mean Rigault grade of 2.7 ± 0.47 prior to surgery was reduced to 1.3 ± 0.47 (p < 0.001) at final evaluation. Age of the patients negatively correlated with the functional outcome (r = - 0.48; p < 0.02). The presence of an omovertebral bar or associated congenital anomalies did not affect the functional outcome.

Conclusion: The modification of Woodward procedure for correction of SD by application of anchoring sutures was a reliable method for correction of SD particularly at younger age. The procedure was associated with significant improvement in shoulder abduction, cosmetic appearance and radiological grades over 5 year follow-up.

Keywords: Cavendish score; Congenital high scapula; Omovertebral bone; Rigault grade; Sprengel’s deformity; Woodward procedure.