To test whether coke oven workers, an occupational group known to be at increased cancer risk, manifest increased peripheral blood chromosomal aberration frequencies, we obtained samples from a group of 30 steelworker volunteers, who had worked several years at coke oven jobs. Exposure estimates were made using measurements of work place atmospheric coal tar pitch volatiles and work histories. No statistically significant positive regression of chromosomal aberrations on exposure estimates was found. The data from the coke oven workers were also compared with the obtained concurrently and employing precisely the same laboratory protocol from a group of male Brookhaven National Laboratory employees. The coke oven workers as a group were found to have statistically significantly elevated frequencies of chromatid aberrations and of sister-chromatid exchanges.