Identification of R-loop-forming Sequences in Drosophila melanogaster Embryos and Tissue Culture Cells Using DRIP-seq

Bio Protoc. 2021 May 5;11(9):e4011. doi: 10.21769/BioProtoc.4011.


R-loops are non-canonical nucleic structures composed of an RNA-DNA hybrid and a displaced ssDNA. Originally identified as a source of genomic instability, R-loops have been shown over the last decade to be involved in the targeting of proteins and to be associated with different histone modifications, suggesting a regulatory function. In addition, R-loops have been demonstrated to form differentially during the development of different tissues in plants and to be associated with diseases in mammals. Here, we provide a single-strand DRIP-seq protocol to identify R-loop-forming sequences in Drosophila melanogaster embryos and tissue culture cells. This protocol differs from earlier DRIP protocols in the fragmentation step. Sonication, unlike restriction enzymes, generates a homogeneous and highly reproducible nucleic acid fragment pool. In addition, it allows the use of this protocol in any organism with minimal optimization. This protocol integrates several steps from published protocols to identify R-loop-forming sequences with high stringency, suitable for de novo characterization. Graphic abstract: Figure 1.Overview of the strand-specific DRIP-seq protocol.

Keywords: DRIP; Drosophila melanogaster; R-loop; RNA-DNA hybrid; S9.6 antibody; Tissue culture cells.