Identification of maternal continuous glucose monitoring metrics related to newborn birth weight in pregnant women with gestational diabetes

Endocrine. 2021 Nov;74(2):290-299. doi: 10.1007/s12020-021-02787-x. Epub 2021 Jun 14.


Purpose: To identify the specific glucose metrics derived from maternal continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) data, which were associated with a higher percentile of offspring birth weight.

Methods: In this cohort study, we recruited singleton pregnant women with GDM who underwent CGM for 5-14 days at a mean of 28.8 gestational weeks between Jan 2017 and Nov 2018. Commonly used single summary glucose metrics of glucose exposure (including mean 24-h, daytime, and nighttime glucose level) and variability (including J-index and mean amplitude of glycaemic excursions) were derived from CGM data. A novel comprehensive glucose metric-hours per-day spent in a severe variability glucose mode (HSSV)-was identified using the spectral clustering method, which reflects both glucose level and variability. Multiple linear regression models were used to estimate the associations of sex- and gestational age-adjusted birth weight percentile with CGM parameters.

Results: Ninety-seven women comprising 127,279 glucose measurements were included. Each 1-SD increase in maternal nighttime mean glucose level and HSSV was associated with 6.0 (95% CI 0.4, 11.5) and 6.3 (95% CI 0.4, 12.2) percentage points increase in birth weight percentile, respectively. No associations were found between other glucose metrics and birth weight percentile.

Conclusion: Nighttime mean glucose level has a comparable effect size to HSSV in association with fetal growth, suggesting that endogenous hyperglycemia might drive the association between maternal hyperglycemia and birth weight. Further studies need to examine the effect of lowering nighttime glucose level and/or HSSV on preventing fetal overgrowth in GDM women.

Keywords: Birth weight.; Continuous glucose monitoring; Gestational diabetes mellitus; Nighttime glucose level; Patterns of glycemic signatures.

MeSH terms

  • Benchmarking
  • Birth Weight
  • Blood Glucose
  • Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring
  • Cohort Studies
  • Diabetes, Gestational*
  • Female
  • Fetal Macrosomia
  • Glucose
  • Humans
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnant Women


  • Blood Glucose
  • Glucose