The tumor microenvironment (TME) harbors heterogeneous contents and plays critical roles in tumorigenesis, metastasis, and drug resistance. Therefore, the deconvolution of the TME becomes increasingly essential to every aspect of cancer research and treatment. Novel spatially-resolved high-plex molecular profiling technologies have been emerging rapidly as powerful tools to obtain in-depth understanding from TME perspectives due to their capacity to allow high-plex protein and RNA profiling while keeping valuable spatial information. Based on our practical experience, we review a variety of available spatial proteogenomic technologies, including 10X Visium, GeoMx Digital Spatial Profiler (DSP), cyclic immunofluorescence-based CODEX and Multi-Omyx, mass spectrometry (MS)-based imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) and multiplex ion-beam imaging (MIBI). We also discuss FISSEQ, MERFISH, Slide-seq, and HDST, some of which may become commercially available in the near future. In particular, with our experience, we elaborate on DSP for spatial proteogenomic profiling and discuss its unique features designed for immuno-oncology and propose anticipation towards its future direction. The emerging spatially technologies are rapidly reshaping the magnitude of our understanding of the TME.
Keywords: DSP; multi-omics; spatially-resolved; tumor microenvironment TME.
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