Quantification of the Proportion of Unfavorable Clinical Outcomes among Imported Malaria Patients According to the Degree of Semi-Immunity on Population Level: An Ecological Study

Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Jun 14;105(2):477-479. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0196.


The protective effect of semi-immunity to alleviate clinical complications of malaria remains incompletely understood. This ecological study quantified the proportion of unfavorable clinical outcomes among patient populations with imported malaria as a function of the reported proportion of absent semi-immunity in a patient population. Group-level proportions were extracted from published studies on imported malaria. Linear regression analyses demonstrate a consistent positive trend between the average proportion of absent semi-immunity in patient populations of imported malaria and the proportion of unfavorable clinical outcomes therein. Regression equations provide a group-level estimate of attributable fractions of clinical complications resulting from absent semi-immunity to malaria.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Antimalarials / therapeutic use
  • Chemoprevention
  • Communicable Diseases, Imported / epidemiology
  • Communicable Diseases, Imported / immunology
  • Humans
  • Immunity
  • Malaria* / drug therapy
  • Malaria* / epidemiology
  • Malaria* / immunology
  • Medication Adherence
  • Mortality
  • Plasmodium / immunology*
  • Population Surveillance
  • Prevalence
  • Travel
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Antimalarials