Background: Neonatal cerebral sinus venous thrombosis (CSVT) causes high morbidity and mortality. Factors associated with either favorable or unfavorable long-term outcomes have not been clearly established. This study aimed to determine the factors involved in long-term neurological outcomes in patients with neonatal CSVT.
Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of patients with neonatal CSVT at a single institution. Clinical factors associated with long-term neurological outcomes were examined.
Results: A total of 67 patients met study inclusion criteria for radiologically confirmed neonatal CSVT. The mean patient follow-up duration was four years (range one week to 16 years, median six years). We observed a favorable neurological outcome defined by a pediatric stroke outcome measures (PSOM) score of 0 to 0.5 in 26 (53%) of osurviving patients at follow-up. An unfavorable neurological outcome as defined by PSOM score >0.5 was observed in 23 survivors (47%). Death was reported in 18 (27%) patients, of which 10 patients died due to direct complications of CSVT. Congential heart disease and genetic disease were associated with significantly increased odds for all-cause death. Cardiorespiratory failure and altered mental status during the initial neurological examination were significantly associated with increased odds of death due to CSVT. Among surviving patients, higher PSOM scores were associated with premature birth (i.e., gestational age < 37 weeks), traumatic birth, site of thrombosis in the straight sinus, site of thrombosis in the internal cerebral veins, and hemorrhagic infarct. In contrast, lower PSOM scores were associated with a normal neurological examination at presentation, thrombosis in only superficial sinuses, and hemorrhage without infarct. There was no statistically significant association between the type and duration of CSVT treatment.
Conclusions: The major factors influencing outcome of neonates following CSVT included comorbid medical conditions, abnormal neurological examination at presentation, location of venous thrombosis, and type of cerebral injury. These results can help guide further studies in neonatal CSVT aiming to decrease morbidity and mortality with the goal of improving long-term neurological outcomes.
Keywords: CSVT; Infarction; Neonate; Stroke; Venous thrombosis.
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