Efficacy of green jackfruit flour as a medical nutrition therapy replacing rice or wheat in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

Nutr Diabetes. 2021 Jun 14;11(1):18. doi: 10.1038/s41387-021-00161-4.


Background/objectives: Medical nutrition therapy along with pharmacological interventions as a multidisciplinary approach is required to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study evaluated the efficacy of Jackfruit365™ green jackfruit flour as an integral part of daily meal in patients with T2DM.

Subjects/methods: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study conducted between May 2019 and February 2020. Patients of either sex aged ≥18 to ≤60 years with a diagnosis of T2DM for >1 year receiving oral antihyperglycemic agents were randomized (1:1) to receive either jackfruit flour 30 g/day (Group A) or placebo flour (Group B) (breakfast and dinner) daily for 12 weeks replacing an equal volume of rice or wheat flour. The primary endpoint was a mean change in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Other endpoints were mean changes in fasting plasma glucose (FPG), postprandial plasma glucose (PPG), lipid profile, and body weight. The independent t-test was used to compare changes between the groups.

Results: A total of 40 patients were enrolled (n = 20 each). A significantly higher reduction in HbA1c was observed in Group A compared to Group B from baseline to week 12 [-2.73 mmol/mol (-0.25%) vs. 0.22 mmol/mol (0.02%), p = 0.006]. The mean change in FPG and PPG was significantly higher in Group A than that of Group B (p = 0.043 and p = 0.001). The continuous glucose monitoring showed decreasing mean blood glucose in 7 days of administration of jackfruit flour meal.

Conclusion: Patients from Group A had a significantly higher reduction in HbA1c, FPG, and PPG than Group B demonstrating the efficacy of jackfruit flour in glycemic control as medical nutrition therapy replacing an equal volume of rice or wheat flour in daily meal.

Clinical trial registry: CTRI/2019/05/019417.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Artocarpus*
  • Blood Glucose / analysis
  • Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / diet therapy*
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Female
  • Flour
  • Glycated Hemoglobin / analysis
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Nutrition Therapy
  • Oryza / chemistry
  • Postprandial Period
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Triticum / chemistry


  • Blood Glucose
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • Hypoglycemic Agents