Background: Response to pharmacological and device-based therapy for heart failure (HF) may vary by sex. We examined sex differences in response to ambulatory hemodynamic monitoring in clinical practice using the CardioMEMS PAS (Post-Approval Study).
Methods: The CardioMEMS PAS was a prospective, single-arm, multicenter, open-label study of 1200 adults with New York Heart Association class III HF and at least 1 HF hospitalization (HFH) within 12 months who underwent pulmonary artery pressure sensor implantation between 2014 and 2017. Changes in pulmonary artery pressure over time were stratified by ejection fraction <40% and sex. Clinical outcomes including HFH rate at 12 months, 1-year mortality, and quality of life were examined in women and men.
Results: Four hundred fifty-two women (38% of total) enrolled in the PAS were less likely to be White (78% versus 86%) and more likely to have nonischemic cardiomyopathy (44% versus 34%) and had significantly higher SBP (132 versus 124 mm Hg), mean ejection fraction (44% versus 36%), and pulmonary vascular resistance (3.2 versus 2.6 WU) than men (P<0.001 for all). There were similar reductions in pulmonary artery pressure from baseline to 12 months in both men and women for the whole cohort and for subgroups with HF with reduced ejection fraction and HF with preserved ejection fraction. Both sexes experienced significant decreases in HFH over 12 months (men: HR, 0.46 [95% CI, 0.40-0.52]; women: HR, 0.39 [95% CI, 0.33-0.46]). In adjusted models, there were no significant differences in change in HFH between men and women (interaction P=0.13) or all-cause mortality at 1 year (adjusted HR, 1.25 [95% CI, 0.88-1.77]).
Conclusions: Women and men enrolled in the CardioMEMS PAS had similar reductions from baseline in pulmonary artery pressure over 1 year and experienced similar reductions in HFH. Hemodynamic monitoring provides similar benefit with regard to HF events in both women and men. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02279888.
Keywords: heart failure; hemodynamics; hospitalization; quality of life; sex.