Clinical Characteristics and Predictors of In-Hospital Mortality in Patients With Cardiogenic Shock: Results From the RESCUE Registry

Circ Heart Fail. 2021 Jun;14(6):e008141. doi: 10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.120.008141. Epub 2021 Jun 15.


Background: In the current era of mechanical circulatory support, limited data are available on prognosis of cardiogenic shock (CS) caused by various diseases. We investigated the characteristics and predictors of in-hospital mortality in Korean patients with CS.

Methods: The RESCUE study (Retrospective and Prospective Observational Study to Investigate Clinical Outcomes and Efficacy of Left Ventricular Assist Device for Korean Patients With CS) is a multicenter, retrospective, and prospective registry of patients that presented with CS. Between January 2014 and December 2018, 1247 patients with CS were enrolled from 12 major centers in Korea. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality.

Results: In-hospital mortality rate was 33.6%. The main causes of shock were ischemic heart disease (80.7%), dilated cardiomyopathy (6.1%), myocarditis (3.2%), and nonischemic ventricular arrhythmia (2.5%). Vasopressors were used in 1081 patients (86.7%). The most frequently used vasopressor was dopamine (63.4%) followed by norepinephrine (57.3%). An intraaortic balloon pump was used in 314 patients (25.2%) and extracorporeal membrane oxygenator in 496 patients (39.8%). In multivariable analysis, age ≥70years (odds ratio [OR], 2.73 [95% CI, 1.89-3.94], P<0.001), body mass index <25 kg/m2 (OR, 1.52 [95% CI, 1.08-2.16], P=0.017), cardiac arrest at presentation (OR, 2.16 [95% CI, 1.44-3.23], P<0.001), vasoactive-inotrope score >80 (OR, 3.55 [95% CI, 2.54-4.95], P<0.001), requiring continuous renal replacement therapy (OR, 4.14 [95% CI, 2.88-5.95], P<0.001), mechanical ventilator (OR, 3.17 [95% CI, 2.16-4.63], P<0.001), intraaortic balloon pump (OR, 1.55 [95% CI, 1.07-2.24], P=0.020), and extracorporeal membrane oxygenator (OR, 1.85 [95% CI, 1.25-2.76], P=0.002) were independent predictors for in-hospital mortality.

Conclusions: The in-hospital mortality of patients with CS remains high despite the high utilization of mechanical circulatory support. Age, low body mass index, cardiac arrest at presentation, amount of vasopressor, and advanced organ failure requiring various support devices were poor prognostic factors for in-hospital mortality. Registration: URL:; Unique identifier: NCT02985008.

Keywords: cardiogenic shock; dopamine; mortality; norepinephrine.

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