Comparison of Soluble ST2, Pentraxin-3, Galectin-3, and High-Sensitivity Troponin T of Cardiovascular Outcomes in Patients With Acute Decompensated Heart Failure

J Card Fail. 2021 Nov;27(11):1240-1250. doi: 10.1016/j.cardfail.2021.05.025. Epub 2021 Jun 12.


Background: Data regarding a direct comparison of soluble suppression of tumorigenesis-2 (sST2), pentraxin 3 (PTX3), galectin-3 (Gal-3), and high-sensitivity troponin T of cardiovascular outcome in patients with heart failure (HF) are lacking.

Methods and results: A total of 616 hospitalized patients with HF were evaluated prospectively. Biomarker data were obtained in the stable predischarge condition. sST2 levels were associated with age, sex, body mass index, inferior vena cava diameter, B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), PTX3, C-reactive protein, and Gal-3 levels. During follow-up, 174 (28.4%) primary composite end points occurred, including 58 cardiovascular deaths and 116 HF rehospitalizations. sST2 predicted the end point after adjustment for 13 clinical variables (hazard ratio 1.422; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.064 to 1.895, P = .018). The association between sST2 and the end point was no longer statistically significant after adjustment for BNP (P = .227), except in the subgroup of patients with preserved ejection fraction (hazard ratio 1.925, 95% CI 1.102-3.378, P = .021). Gal-3 and high-sensitivity troponin T predicted the risk for the end point after adjustment for age and sex, but were not significant after adjustment for clinical variables. The prognostic value of PTX3 was not observed (age and sex adjusted, P = .066).

Conclusions: This study did not show significant additional value of biomarkers to BNP for risk stratification, except sST2 in patients with preserved ejection fraction.

Keywords: biomarker; heart failure; prognosis.

MeSH terms

  • Biomarkers / blood
  • C-Reactive Protein
  • Galectin 3* / blood
  • Heart Failure* / diagnosis
  • Heart Failure* / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Interleukin-1 Receptor-Like 1 Protein / blood*
  • Natriuretic Peptide, Brain
  • Serum Amyloid P-Component / analysis*
  • Troponin T / blood*


  • Biomarkers
  • Galectin 3
  • IL1RL1 protein, human
  • Interleukin-1 Receptor-Like 1 Protein
  • Serum Amyloid P-Component
  • Troponin T
  • Natriuretic Peptide, Brain
  • PTX3 protein
  • C-Reactive Protein