Intersectionality between parenting styles, area of residence and gender on food group consumption among Costa Rican adolescents

Appetite. 2021 Nov 1;166:105443. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2021.105443. Epub 2021 Jun 13.


Little is known about how parenting styles can influence the adolescent's consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), fruits and vegetables (FV) and beans in Latin America. This study uses hierarchical moderated regression models to examine such association by area of residence, sex of the parent and of the adolescent in Costa Rica. Results showed that fathers' authoritarian style was significantly associated with lower intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) among boys (b = -0.163, p = 0.050), but not girls (b = 0.097, p = 0.114) while mother's authoritarian style was associated with lower SSB intake among girls (b = -0.138, p = 0.031), but not boys (b = 0.159, p = 0.059). Fathers' authoritative style was associated with higher consumption of fruits and vegetables (FV) among boys in rural areas (b=0.440, p= 0.017), but this association was not significant for girls (b=-0.033, p= 0.800) in rural areas or for either gender in urban areas. Parenting styles of the mothers' and fathers' were not significantly associated with Costa Rican adolescent bean consumption, in general or for any of the subgroups. Findings suggest an intersectionality in the effects of parentchild interactions by child and parent sex, cultural and geographic context, and the eating behaviors examined.

Keywords: Adolescents; Beans; Costa Rica; Fruits and vegetables; Parenting styles; Sugar-sweetened beverages.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Child
  • Fathers
  • Feeding Behavior
  • Fruit
  • Humans
  • Parenting*
  • Vegetables*