Kidney Disease among People Who Are Incarcerated

Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2021 Nov;16(11):1766-1772. doi: 10.2215/CJN.01910221. Epub 2021 Jun 16.


CKD affects 15% of US adults and is associated with higher morbidity and mortality. CKD disproportionately affects certain populations, including racial and ethnic minorities and individuals from disadvantaged socioeconomic backgrounds. These groups are also disproportionately affected by incarceration and barriers to accessing health services. Incarceration represents an opportunity to link marginalized individuals to CKD care. Despite a legal obligation to provide a community standard of care including the screening and treatment of individuals with CKD, there is little evidence to suggest systematic efforts are in place to address this prevalent, costly, and ultimately fatal condition. This review highlights unrealized opportunities to connect individuals with CKD to care within the criminal justice system and as they transition to the community, and it underscores the need for more evidence-based strategies to address the health effect of CKD on over-represented communities in the criminal justice system.

Keywords: chronic kidney disease; disparity; equity; prisoners.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Health Services Accessibility*
  • Humans
  • Prisoners*
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / diagnosis*
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / epidemiology
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / therapy*
  • Risk Factors
  • United States / epidemiology
  • Vulnerable Populations