Histomorphological analysis of gastric polyps

Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2021 Jun;64(Supplement):S69-S72. doi: 10.4103/IJPM.IJPM_118_20.

Abstract

Introduction: Incidence of gastric carcinoma and gastric polyps is on rise all over the world. Chronic atrophic gastritis to intestinal metaplasia progressing to adenocarcinoma has been documented pathway for gastric carcinogenesis. Another pathway for gastric carcinoma is adenoma carcinoma sequence similar to colon cancer.

Aim: To study prevalence, endoscopic, and histomorphological features of gastric polyps.

Methods and material: This was retrospective analysis of gastric polyps from 2012 to 2019 in consecutive 10,800 upper gastrointestinal endoscopies. Demographic, endoscopic, and histopathological data were obtained from hospital records. All gastric polyps were classified as per standard histologic criteria. Additional histological features noted were presence of dysplasia, focus of adenoma, or malignancy.

Results: The prevalence of gastric polyps was 434 (4%) of 10,800 upper gastrointestinal endoscopies. Majority of polyps were found in the last 4 years (277: 63.8%). Mean age was 55.4 years with male to female ratio 1:1.2. Most of the polyps (94.9%) were less than 1 cm, located in gastric antrum. Multiple polyps were seen in 20.9% cases. On histopathology, fundic gland polyps were most common (147: 33.8%), followed by hyperplastic (128: 29.4%) polyps. Adenomatous polyps were nine (2%); of these, two cases of hyperplastic polyps and one each of fundic gland polyp and benign epithelial polyp showed adenomatous foci.

Conclusion: Fundic gland polyps were the most common polyps. With rising incidence of gastric carcinoma, identification of gastric polyps on endoscopy with biopsy can prevent progression to carcinogenesis.

Keywords: Adenoma; fundic gland polyp; gastric carcinoma; gastric preneoplastic lesion; hyperplastic polyp; portal hypertensive polyps.

MeSH terms

  • Adenomatous Polyps / classification*
  • Adenomatous Polyps / pathology*
  • Aged
  • Biopsy
  • Endoscopy
  • Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal
  • Female
  • Gastritis / complications
  • Histological Techniques / methods
  • Histological Techniques / statistics & numerical data*
  • Humans
  • Intestinal Polyps / pathology*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prevalence
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Stomach Neoplasms / classification*
  • Stomach Neoplasms / pathology*

Supplementary concepts

  • Polyposis, Gastric