Inactivated poultry vaccines are subject to routine potency testing for batch release, requiring large numbers of animals. The replacement of in vivo tests for cell-based alternatives can be facilitated by the identification of biomarkers for vaccine-induced immune responses. In this study, chicken bone marrow-derived dendritic cells were stimulated with an inactivated vaccine for infectious bronchitis virus and Newcastle disease virus, as well as inactivated infectious bronchitis virus only, and lipopolysaccharides as positive control, or left unstimulated for comparison with the stimulated samples. Next, the cells were lysed and subjected to proteomic analysis. Stimulation with the vaccine resulted in 66 differentially expressed proteins associated with mRNA translation, immune responses, lipid metabolism and the proteasome. For the eight most significantly upregulated proteins, mRNA expression levels were assessed. Markers that showed increased expression at both mRNA and protein levels included PLIN2 and PSMB1. Stimulation with infectious bronchitis virus only resulted in 25 differentially expressed proteins, which were mostly proteins containing Src homology 2 domains. Stimulation with lipopolysaccharides resulted in 118 differentially expressed proteins associated with dendritic cell maturation and antimicrobial activity. This study provides leads to a better understanding of the activation of dendritic cells by an inactivated poultry vaccine, and identified PLIN2 and PSMB1 as potential biomarkers for cell-based potency testing.