Background: Conventional HER2-targeting therapies improve outcomes for patients with HER2-positive breast cancer (BC), defined as tumors showing HER2 protein overexpression by immunohistochemistry and/or ERBB2 gene amplification determined by in situ hybridization (ISH). Emerging HER2-targeting compounds show benefit in some patients with neither HER2 protein overexpression nor ERBB2 gene amplification, creating a need for new assays to select HER2-low tumors for treatment with these compounds. We evaluated the analytical performance of a targeted mass spectrometry-based assay for quantifying HER2 protein in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) and frozen BC biopsies.
Methods: We used immunoaffinity-enrichment coupled to multiple reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry (immuno-MRM-MS) to quantify HER2 protein (as peptide GLQSLPTHDPSPLQR) in 96 frozen and 119 FFPE BC biopsies. We characterized linearity, lower limit of quantification (LLOQ), and intra- and inter-day variation of the assay in frozen and FFPE tissue matrices. We determined concordance between HER2 immuno-MRM-MS and predicate immunohistochemistry and ISH assays and examined the benefit of multiplexing the assay to include proteins expressed in tumor subcompartments (e.g., stroma, adipose, lymphocytes, epithelium) to account for tissue heterogeneity.
Results: HER2 immuno-MRM-MS assay linearity was ≥103, assay coefficient of variation was 7.8% (FFPE) and 5.9% (frozen) for spiked-in analyte, and 7.7% (FFPE) and 7.9% (frozen) for endogenous measurements. Immuno-MRM-MS-based HER2 measurements strongly correlated with predicate assay HER2 determinations, and concordance was improved by normalizing to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. HER2 was quantified above the LLOQ in all tumors.
Conclusions: Immuno-MRM-MS can be used to quantify HER2 in FFPE and frozen BC biopsies, even at low HER2 expression levels.
Keywords: HER2; breast cancer; formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE); immuno-MRM-MS; immunopeptide enrichment; multiple reaction monitoring; targeted mass spectrometry; tissue heterogeneity.
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