Pharmacogenomics education, research and clinical implementation in the state of Minnesota

Pharmacogenomics. 2021 Jul;22(11):681-691. doi: 10.2217/pgs-2021-0058. Epub 2021 Jun 17.


Several healthcare organizations across Minnesota have developed formal pharmacogenomic (PGx) clinical programs to increase drug safety and effectiveness. Healthcare professional and student education is strong and there are multiple opportunities in the state for learners to gain workforce skills and develop advanced competency in PGx. Implementation planning is occurring at several organizations and others have incorporated structured utilization of PGx into routine workflows. Laboratory-based and translational PGx research in Minnesota has driven important discoveries in several therapeutic areas. This article reviews the state of PGx activities in Minnesota including educational programs, research, national consortia involvement, technology, clinical implementation and utilization and reimbursement, and outlines the challenges and opportunities in equitable implementation of these advances.

Keywords: Minnesota; implementation; pharmacogenomics.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Biomedical Research / education*
  • Biomedical Research / trends
  • Education, Pharmacy, Graduate* / trends
  • Health Personnel / education*
  • Health Personnel / trends
  • Humans
  • Minnesota
  • Pharmacogenetics / education*
  • Pharmacogenetics / trends
  • Pharmacogenomic Testing* / trends