Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder, projected to be the second leading cause of mortality by 2040. AD is characterized by a progressive impairment of memory leading to dementia and loss of ability to carry out daily functions. In addition to the deficiency of acetylcholine release in synapse, there are other mechanisms explaining the etiology of the disease. The most disputing ones are associated with the accumulation of damaged proteins β-amyloid (Aβ) and hyperphosphorylated tau outside and inside neurons, respectively. Lysergic acid derivatives have been shown to possess promising anti-Alzheimer effect. Moreover, lysergic acid structure encompasses the general structural requirements for acetylcholinesterase inhibition. In this study, sixteen analogues, derived from lysergic acid structure, were synthesized. Heck and Mannich reactions were carried out to 4-bromo indole nucleus to generate potentially active analogues. Some of them were subsequently cyclized by nitromethane and zinc reduction procedures. Some of these compounds showed neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects stronger than the currently used anti-Alzheimer drug; donepezil. Some of the synthesized com-pounds showed a noticeable acetylcholinesterase inhibition. Twelve molecular targets attributed with AD etiology were tested versus the synthesized compounds by in silico modeling. Docking scores of modeling were plotted against in vitro activity of the compounds. The one afforded the strongest positive correlation was ULK-1 which has a significant role in autophagy.
Keywords: Alzheimer; Lysergic acid; Neuroprotection; Structural simplification.
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