Background: Severe hypocalcaemia is associated with increased transfusion in the trauma population. Furthermore, trauma patients developing severe hypocalcaemia have higher mortality and coagulopathy. Electrolyte abnormalities associated with massive transfusion have been less studied in the surgical population. Here, we tested the primary hypothesis that volume of packed red blood cells and fresh frozen plasma transfused intraoperatively is associated with lower nadir ionised calcium in the surgical population receiving massive resuscitation.
Methods: We performed a retrospective observational study at an academic quaternary care centre to characterise hypocalcaemia following large volume (4 or more units packed red blood cells) intraoperative transfusion. We used multivariable linear regression to assess if volume of transfusion with packed red blood cells and fresh frozen plasma were independently associated with a lower ionised calcium. We then used multivariable logistic regressions to assess the association between ionised calcium and transfusion with: (i) mortality, (ii) acute kidney injury, and (iii) postoperative coagulopathy.
Results: Hypocalcaemia following large volume resuscitation in the operating room is a very frequent occurrence (70% of cases). After controlling for demographic variables and intraoperative variables, the volume transfused intraoperative was independently associated with hypocalcaemia on multivariable linear regression. Hypocalcaemia, intraoperative transfusion of packed red blood cells, and intraoperative transfusion of fresh frozen plasma were not shown to be associated with clinical outcomes.
Conclusions: Hypocalcaemia was associated with increased transfusion volume in this single-centre study. Unlike the trauma population, hypocalcaemia was not associated with increased mortality during surgical care. Our findings suggest that despite improved practice patterns of calcium supplementation, intraoperative hypocalcaemia occurs with relatively high frequency following large volume intraoperative transfusion.
Keywords: calcium repletion; hypocalcaemia; intraoperative transfusion; massive transfusion; perioperative medicine.
© 2021 British Blood Transfusion Society.