Bariatric and Metabolic Endoscopy: A New Paradigm

Clin Transl Gastroenterol. 2021 Jun 18;12(6):e00364. doi: 10.14309/ctg.0000000000000364.


The prevalence of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndromes is increasing globally. Minimally invasive metabobariatric (MB) endoscopic therapies are adjunct treatments that can potentially bridge the gap between surgical interventions and medical therapy. A growing number of MB techniques are becoming available, allowing for more personalized and patient-targeted treatment options for specific disease states. MB techniques are less invasive than surgery and can precisely target different parts of the gastrointestinal tract that may be responsible for the pathophysiology of obesity and metabolic syndromes such as type 2 diabetes mellitus. These alternatives should be selected on an individualized patient basis to balance the expected clinical outcomes and desired anatomical targets with the level of invasiveness and degree of acceptable risk. Each MB intervention presents great flexibility allowing for a tailored intervention and different levels of patient engagement. Patient awareness and motivation are essential to avoid therapy withdrawal and failure. Differences between MB procedures in terms of weight loss and metabolic benefit will be discussed in this review, along with the insights on clinical decision-making processes to evaluate the potential of further evolution and growth of bariatric and metabolic endoscopy.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Bariatric Surgery / methods*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / pathology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / surgery*
  • Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal / methods*
  • Humans
  • Metabolic Syndrome / prevention & control*
  • Obesity / pathology
  • Obesity / surgery*
  • Weight Loss