Efficacy of prompted voiding for reversing urinary incontinence in older adults hospitalized in a functional recovery unit: Study protocol

J Adv Nurs. 2021 Aug;77(8):3542-3552. doi: 10.1111/jan.14918. Epub 2021 Jun 18.


Aims: To assess the efficacy of a prompted voiding programme for restoring urinary continence at discharge in hospitalized older adults who presented with reversible urinary incontinence (UI) on admission to a functional recovery unit (FRU). To assess the maintenance of the outcomes achieved after hospitalization. To identify modifiable and unmodifiable factors associated with the success of the prompted voiding programme.

Design: Quasi-experimental, pre-/post-intervention study without a control group.

Methods: Participants were aged 65 and over with a history of reversible UI in the previous year who had been admitted to a FRU and were on a prompted voiding programme throughout their hospitalization period. The sample consisted of 221 participants. A non-probabilistic sampling method, in order of recruitment after signing the informed consent form, was used. The primary outcomes were UI assessed at discharge and 1 month, 3 months and 6 months after discharge. Funding was granted in July 2019 by the Spain Health Research Fund (PI19/00168, Ministry of Health). The proposal was approved by the Spanish Research Ethics Committee.

Discussion: The prompted voiding programme described can reverse UI or decrease the frequency and amount of urine loss in hospitalized older adults.

Impact: Urinary incontinence is highly prevalent in hospitalized older adults. There is a need for care aimed at prevention, recovery and symptom control. Prompted voiding is a therapy provided by the nursing team during hospitalization and can also be provided by family caregivers at home after receiving proper training by the nursing team. Prompted voiding will enhance the health, functional ability and quality of life of older adults with UI, resulting in the reduction of associated healthcare costs and the risk of developing complications.

Keywords: elderly; frail elderly; hospitalization; nursing; nursing care; prompted voiding; rehabilitation; urinary incontinence.

MeSH terms

  • Activities of Daily Living
  • Aged
  • Humans
  • Quality of Life*
  • Spain
  • Urinary Incontinence*
  • Urination