Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small anuclear vesicles, delimited by a lipid bilayer, released by almost all cell types, carrying functionally active biological molecules that can be transferred to the neighbouring or distant cells, inducing phenotypical and functional changes, relevant in various physio-pathological conditions. The microRNAs are the most significant active components transported by EVs, with crucial role in intercellular communication and significant effects on recipient cells. They may also server as novel valuable biomarkers for the diagnosis of metabolic disorders. Moreover, EVs are supposed to mediate type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) risk and its progress. The T2DM development is preceded by prediabetes, a state that is associated with early forms of nephropathy and neuropathy, chronic kidney disease, diabetic retinopathy, and increased risk of macrovascular disease. Although the interest of scientists was focused not only on the pathogenesis of diabetes, but also on the early diagnosis, little is known about EVs-incorporated microRNA involvement in prediabetes state and its microvascular and macrovascular complications. Here, we survey the biogenesis, classification, content, biological functions and the most popular primary isolation methods of EVs, review the EVs-associated microRNA profiling connexion with early stages of diabetes and discuss the role of EVs containing specific microRNAs in prediabetes complications.
Keywords: Extracellular vesicles; Prediabetes; Vascular complications; microRNAs.