Bioactive coatings for dental implants: A review of alternative strategies to prevent peri-implantitis induced by anaerobic bacteria

Anaerobe. 2021 Aug;70:102404. doi: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2021.102404. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Abstract

Members of oral bacterial communities form biofilms not only on tooth surfaces but also on the surface of dental implants that replace natural teeth. Prolonged interaction of host cells with biofilm-forming anaerobes frequently elicits peri-implantitis, a destructive inflammatory disease accompanied by alveolar bone loss leading to implant failure. Here we wish to overview how the deposition of bioactive peptides to dental implant surfaces could potentially inhibit bacterial colonization and the development of peri-implantisis. One preventive strategy is based on natural antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) immobilized on titanium surfaces. AMPs are capable to destroy both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria directly. An alternative strategy aims at coating implant surfaces - especially the transmucosal part - with peptides facilitating the attachment of gingival epithelial cells and connective tissue cells. These cells produce AMPs and may form a soft tissue seal that prevents oral bacteria from accessing the apical part of the osseointegrated implant. Because a wide variety of titanium-bound peptides were studied in vitro, we wish to concentrate on bioactive peptides of human origin and some of their derivatives. Furthermore, special attention will be given to peptides effective under in vivo test conditions.

Keywords: Anaerobic bacteria; Antimicrobial peptide; Gingival epithelial cells; Peri-implantitis; Titanium surface.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / chemistry
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology*
  • Antimicrobial Peptides / pharmacology*
  • Bacteria / drug effects
  • Bacteria / growth & development
  • Biofilms
  • Dental Implants / microbiology*
  • Humans
  • Peri-Implantitis / microbiology
  • Peri-Implantitis / prevention & control*
  • Titanium / chemistry

Substances

  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Antimicrobial Peptides
  • Dental Implants
  • Titanium