Risk factors for residual disease at re-TUR in a large cohort of T1G3 patients

Actas Urol Esp (Engl Ed). 2021 Jul-Aug;45(6):473-478. doi: 10.1016/j.acuroe.2020.08.014. Epub 2021 Jun 17.
[Article in English, Spanish]


Introduction and objectives: The goals of transurethral resection of a bladder tumor (TUR) are to completely resect the lesions and to make a correct diagnosis in order to adequately stage the patient. It is well known that the presence of detrusor muscle in the specimen is a prerequisite to minimize the risk of under staging. Persistent disease after resection of bladder tumors is not uncommon and is the reason why the European Guidelines recommended a re-TUR for all T1 tumors. It was recently published that when there is muscle in the specimen, re-TUR does not influence progression or cancer specific survival. We present here the patient and tumor factors that may influence the presence of residual disease at re-TUR.

Material and methods: In our retrospective cohort of 2451 primary T1G3 patients initially treated with BCG, pathology results for 934 patients (38.1%) who underwent re-TUR are available. 74% had multifocal tumors, 20% of tumors were more than 3 cm in diameter and 26% had concomitant CIS. In this subgroup of patients who underwent re-TUR, there was no residual disease in 267 patients (29%) and residual disease in 667 patients (71%): Ta in 378 (40%) and T1 in 289 (31%) patients. Age, gender, tumor status (primary/recurrent), previous intravesical therapy, tumor size, tumor multi-focality, presence of concomitant CIS, and muscle in the specimen were analyzed in order to evaluate risk factors of residual disease at re-TUR, both in univariate analyses and multivariate logistic regressions.

Results: The following were not risk factors for residual disease: age, gender, tumor status and previous intravesical chemotherapy. The following were univariate risk factors for presence of residual disease: no muscle in TUR, multiple tumors, tumors > 3 cm, and presence of concomitant CIS. Due to the correlation between tumor multi-focality and tumor size, the multivariate model retained either the number of tumors or the tumor diameter (but not both), p < 0.001. The presence of muscle in the specimen was no longer significant, while the presence of CIS only remained significant in the model with tumor size, p < 0.001.

Conclusions: The most significant factors for a higher risk of residual disease at re-TUR in T1G3 patients are multifocal tumors and tumors more than 3 cm. Patients with concomitant CIS and those without muscle in the specimen also have a higher risk of residual disease.

Keywords: Cáncer de vejiga no músculo-invasivo; Enfermedad residual; Non-muscle invasive bladder cancer; Progresión; Progression; Re-resección transuretral de la vejiga; Re-transurethral resection of the bladder; Recurrence; Recurrencia; Residual disease.

MeSH terms

  • Carcinoma, Transitional Cell* / pathology
  • Humans
  • Neoplasm Staging
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms* / surgery