Phenotypic Differences of Glu89Gln Genotype in ATTR Amyloidosis From Endemic Loci: Update From THAOS

Cardiol Ther. 2021 Dec;10(2):481-490. doi: 10.1007/s40119-021-00226-6. Epub 2021 Jun 19.


Introduction: Transthyretin amyloidosis (ATTR amyloidosis) is a progressive, clinically heterogeneous disease with spontaneous (wild-type) and hereditary (ATTRv) forms. The Glu89Gln variant is primarily associated with cardiomyopathy and prevalent in Italy and Bulgaria. The objective of this analysis was to better understand the profile of patients with ATTRv Glu89Gln amyloidosis in the Transthyretin Amyloidosis Outcomes Survey (THAOS).

Methods: THAOS is an ongoing, global, longitudinal, observational survey of patients with ATTR amyloidosis, including both inherited and wild-type disease, and asymptomatic carriers with mutations in the transthyretin gene. Demographic and clinical characteristics of all symptomatic patients with the ATTRv Glu89Gln variant enrolled in THAOS are described (data cutoff, January 6, 2020).

Results: There were 91 patients with ATTRv Glu89Gln amyloidosis with the majority from Bulgaria (n = 53) or Italy (n = 29). All patients were Caucasian and 50.5% were male. Patients from Bulgaria had a mean (standard deviation) age at enrollment of 57.1 (8.2) years, and duration of symptoms of 8.6 (9.6) years, compared with 54.8 (8.6) and 5.0 (4.1) years in Italy. In Bulgaria, 39.6% of patients were of a predominantly cardiac phenotype, 18.9% predominantly neurologic, and 41.5% mixed. In Italy, 3.4% of patients were predominantly cardiac, 62.1% predominantly neurologic, and 34.5% mixed.

Conclusions: The majority of patients with ATTRv Glu89Gln amyloidosis in THAOS are from Bulgaria or Italy. There were notable phenotypic differences, with the cardiac phenotype more common in Bulgaria and the neurologic phenotype more common in Italy. Over one-third of patients had a mixed phenotype, suggesting a potential role of multiple genetic and/or environmental factors and the need for comprehensive assessment of all patients.

Trial registration: NCT00628745.

Keywords: ATTR; Bulgaria; Glu89Gln; Italy; Transthyretin amyloidosis.

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