Impact of lung function on cardiovascular diseases and cardiovascular risk factors: a two sample bidirectional Mendelian randomisation study

Thorax. 2022 Feb;77(2):164-171. doi: 10.1136/thoraxjnl-2020-215600. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Abstract

Introduction: Observational studies suggested lung function is inversely associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) although these studies could be confounded. We conducted a two sample Mendelian randomisation study using summary statistics from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to clarify the role of lung function in CVD and its risk factors, and conversely the role of CVD in lung function.

Methods: We obtained genetic instruments for forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1: 260) and forced vital capacity (FVC: 320) from publicly available UK Biobank summary statistics (n=421 986) and applied to GWAS summary statistics for coronary artery disease (CAD) (n=184 305), stroke (n=446 696), atrial fibrillation (n=1 030 836) and heart failure (n=977 320) and cardiovascular risk factors. Inverse variance weighting was used to assess the impact of lung function on these outcomes, with various sensitivity analyses. Bidirectional Mendelian randomisation was used to assess reverse causation.

Results: FEV1 and FVC were inversely associated with CAD (OR per SD increase, 0.72 (95% CI 0.63 to 0.82) and 0.70 (95%CI 0.62 to 0.78)), overall stroke (0.87 (95%CI 0.77 to 0.97), 0.90 (95% CI 0.82 to 1.00)) and some stroke subtypes. FEV1 and FVC were inversely associated with type 2 diabetes and systolic blood pressure. Sensitivity analyses produced similar findings although the association with CAD was attenuated after adjusting for height (eg, OR for 1SD FEV10.95 (0.75 to 1.19), but not for stroke or type 2 diabetes. There was no strong evidence for reverse causation.

Conclusion: Higher lung function likely protect against CAD and stroke.

Keywords: not applicable.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Cardiovascular Diseases* / epidemiology
  • Cardiovascular Diseases* / genetics
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2* / complications
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2* / genetics
  • Genome-Wide Association Study
  • Humans
  • Lung
  • Mendelian Randomization Analysis
  • Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
  • Risk Factors