Background: Dengue is an endemic vector-borne disease influenced by environmental factors such as landscape and climate. Previous studies separately assessed the effects of landscape and climate factors on mosquito occurrence and dengue incidence. However, both factors concurrently coexist in time and space and can interact, affecting mosquito development and dengue disease transmission. For example, eggs laid in a suitable environment can hatch after being submerged in rain water. It has been difficult for conventional statistical modeling approaches to demonstrate these combined influences due to mathematical constraints.
Objectives: To investigate the combined influences of landscape and climate factors on mosquito occurrence and dengue incidence.
Methods: Entomological, epidemiological, and landscape data from the rainy season (July-December) were obtained from respective government agencies in Metropolitan Manila, Philippines, from 2012 to 2014. Temperature, precipitation and vegetation data were obtained through remote sensing. A random forest algorithm was used to select the landscape and climate variables. Afterward, using the identified key variables, a model-based (MOB) recursive partitioning was implemented to test the combined influences of landscape and climate factors on ovitrap index (vector mosquito occurrence) and dengue incidence.
Results: The MOB recursive partitioning for ovitrap index indicated a high sensitivity of vector mosquito occurrence on environmental conditions generated by a combination of high residential density areas with low precipitation. Moreover, the MOB recursive partitioning indicated high sensitivity of dengue incidence to the effects of precipitation in areas with high proportions of residential density and commercial areas.
Conclusions: Dengue dynamics are not solely influenced by individual effects of either climate or landscape, but rather by their synergistic or combined effects. The presented findings have the potential to target vector surveillance in areas identified as suitable for mosquito occurrence under specific climatic conditions and may be relevant as part of urban planning strategies to control dengue.
Keywords: Combined influences; Dengue; Environmental factors; Random forest; Recursive partitioning.
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