Therapeutic Aspects of Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Based Cell Therapy with a Focus on Human Amniotic Epithelial Cells in Multiple Sclerosis: A Mechanistic Review

Int J Stem Cells. 2021 Aug 30;14(3):241-251. doi: 10.15283/ijsc21032.


Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disease of central nervous system (CNS). The mmune system plays an important role in its pathogenesis. Current treatments are unable to cure patients and prevent the progression of MS lesions. Stem cell-based cell therapy has opened a new window for MS treatment. Stem cells regulate immune responses and improve axonal remyelination. Stem cells can be obtained from different origins such as embryonic, neural, bone marrow, and adipose tissues. But yet there is a challenge for the selection of the best cell source for stem cell therapy. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a type of stem cell obtained from different origins and have significant immunomodulatory effects on the immune system. The increasing evidence have suggested that umbilical cord and adipose tissue can be a suitable source for isolation of MSCs. Moreover, human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs) as novel stem cell origins by having immunoregulatory effects, regenerative effects, and less capacity of antigenicity can be a candidate for MS treatment. This review discussed the mechanistic effects of MSCs with a focus on human amniotic epithelial cells, which can be used to treatment and improvement of outcome in MS disease.

Keywords: Human amniotic epithelial cell; Immunomodulatory effects; Mesenchymal stem cell; Multiple sclerosis; Regenerative impacts.

Publication types

  • Review