Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of the simultaneous hypertonic saline solution and IV furosemide (HSS+Fx) for patients with fluid overload compared with IV furosemide alone (Fx).
Data sources: Electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, PsycINFO, Scopus, and WOS) were searched from inception to March 2020.
Study selection: Randomized controlled trials on the use of HSS+Fx in adult patients with fluid overload versus Fx were included.
Data extraction: Data were collected on all-cause mortality, hospital length of stay, heart failure-related readmission, along with inpatient weight loss, change of daily diuresis, serum creatinine, and 24-hour urine sodium excretion from prior to post intervention. Pooled analysis with random effects models yielded relative risk or mean difference with 95% CIs.
Data synthesis: Eleven randomized controlled trials comprising 2,987 acute decompensated heart failure patients were included. Meta-analysis demonstrated that HSS+Fx was associated with lower all-cause mortality (relative risk, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.46-0.67; p < 0.05; I2 = 12%) and heart failure-related readmissions (relative risk, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.33-0.76; p < 0.05; I2 = 61%), shorter hospital length of stay (mean difference, -3.28 d; 95% CI, -4.14 to -2.43; p < 0.05; I2 = 93%), increased daily diuresis (mean difference, 583.87 mL; 95% CI, 504.92-662.81; p < 0.05; I2 = 76%), weight loss (mean difference, -1.76 kg; 95% CI, -2.52 to -1.00; p < 0.05; I2 = 57%), serum sodium change (mean difference, 6.89 mEq/L; 95% CI, 4.98-8.79; p < 0.05; I2 = 95%), and higher 24-hour urine sodium excretion (mean difference, 61.10 mEq; 95% CI, 51.47-70.73; p < 0.05; I2 = 95%), along with decreased serum creatinine (mean difference, -0.46 mg/dL; 95% CI, -0.51 to -0.41; p < 0.05; I2 = 89%) when compared with Fx. The Grading of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation certainty of evidence ranged from low to moderate.
Conclusions: Benefits of the HSS+Fx over Fx were observed across all examined outcomes in acute decompensated heart failure patients with fluid overload. There is at least moderate certainty that HSS+Fx is associated with a reduction in mortality in patients with acute decompensated heart failure. Factors associated with a successful HSS+Fx utilization are still unknown. Current evidence cannot be extrapolated to other than fluid overload states in acute decompensated heart failure.
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