The Association of Prenatal Vitamin D Sufficiency With Aeroallergen Sensitization and Allergic Rhinitis in Early Childhood

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2021 Oct;9(10):3788-3796.e3. doi: 10.1016/j.jaip.2021.06.009. Epub 2021 Jun 21.


Background: The role of prenatal vitamin D sufficiency and supplementation in the development of childhood aeroallergen sensitization and allergic rhinitis remains uncertain.

Objective: To describe the association of prenatal vitamin D sufficiency with childhood allergic outcomes in participants of the Vitamin D Antenatal Asthma Reduction Trial, a randomized controlled trial of prenatal vitamin D supplementation.

Methods: We included 414 mother-offspring pairs with offspring aeroallergen sensitization data available at age 6 years in this analysis. We examined the association between prenatal vitamin D sufficiency status, based on vitamin D levels measured in the first and third trimesters, or vitamin D supplementation treatment assignment with the outcomes of aeroallergen sensitization, parent-reported clinical allergic rhinitis, parent-reported clinical allergic rhinitis with aeroallergen sensitization, food sensitization, any sensitization, eczema, and total IgE at ages 3 and 6 years.

Results: Compared with early and late insufficiency, early prenatal vitamin D insufficiency with late sufficiency was associated with reduced development of clinical allergic rhinitis with aeroallergen sensitization at 3 years (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.13-0.82; P = .02) and 6 years (aOR = 0.54; 95% CI, 0.29-0.98; P = .05). At 6 years, clinical allergic rhinitis with sensitization was significantly decreased in offspring whose mothers received high-dose vitamin D (aOR = 0.54; 95% CI, 0.32-0.91; P = .02) compared with offspring whose mothers who received low-dose vitamin D. Associations of prenatal vitamin D with aeroallergen sensitization were strengthened among children who also developed asthma or who had a maternal history of atopy.

Conclusions: Among mothers with first-trimester vitamin D insufficiency, we detected a protective effect of third-trimester prenatal vitamin D sufficiency on the development of clinical allergic rhinitis with aeroallergen sensitization at ages 3 and 6 years.

Keywords: Aeroallergen sensitization; Allergic rhinitis; Prenatal; Vitamin D.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Allergens
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Eczema*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Pregnancy
  • Rhinitis, Allergic* / epidemiology
  • Vitamin D
  • Vitamins


  • Allergens
  • Vitamins
  • Vitamin D