The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive update and highlight the distinct electroclinical features and discuss recent advances in the etiology, pathophysiology, and management strategies of epilepsy with eyelid myoclonia. Recent studies indicate that variations of certain genes including CHD2 (chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 2), KCNB1, KIAA2022, and NAA10 may occur in these patients. It has been postulated that the occipital cortex may play a role in the pathophysiology. Recent studies of functional imaging and connectivity of neuronal electrical activity have provided additional evidence to support this hypothesis. The frontal cortex has additionally been implicated, and it has been suggested that the epileptic cortex may extend beyond the occipital cortex to involve the posterior temporal cortex. We update the management strategies and describe tools that may predict seizure persistence. Epilepsy with eyelid myoclonias, or Jeavons syndrome, is an idiopathic generalized epilepsy characterized by the triad of eyelid myoclonia with or without absence seizures, eyelid closure-elicited electroencephalographic (EEG) paroxysms (epileptiform discharges and/or seizures), and photosensitivity. This condition may account for up to 13% of generalized epilepsies. However, it is frequently under-reported and under-recognized. Many of the patients develop medically refractory epilepsy, and seizures tend to persist throughout life.
Keywords: Absence seizures; Eyelid myoclonia; Idiopathic generalized epilepsy; Jeavons syndrome.
Copyright © 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.