Defining AKD: The Spectrum of AKI, AKD, and CKD

Nephron. 2022;146(3):302-305. doi: 10.1159/000516647. Epub 2021 Jun 24.


Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) guidelines address the definition, classification, and management of acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). In practice, some clinical presentations of acute kidney diseases and disorders (AKD) do not meet the criteria for AKI or CKD. In principle, these presentations may be caused by the same diseases that cause AKI or CKD, which could be detected, evaluated, and treated before they evolve to AKI or CKD. In 2020, KDIGO convened a consensus conference to review recent evidence on the epidemiology of AKD and harmonize the definition and classification of AKD to be consistent with KDIGO definitions and classifications of AKI and CKD.

Keywords: Acute kidney disease; Acute kidney injury; Chronic kidney disease; Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes guidelines.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Acute Disease
  • Acute Kidney Injury* / diagnosis
  • Acute Kidney Injury* / epidemiology
  • Acute Kidney Injury* / therapy
  • Consensus
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Kidney
  • Male
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic* / complications
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic* / epidemiology
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic* / therapy