Left Ventricular Stimulation With Electrical Latency Predicts Mortality in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy

JACC Clin Electrophysiol. 2021 Jun;7(6):796-805. doi: 10.1016/j.jacep.2020.10.015. Epub 2021 Jan 11.


Objectives: This study sought to evaluate the prognostic value of the time interval from left ventricular (LV) pacing to the earliest onset of QRS complex (S-QRS) for long-term clinical outcomes in patients who underwent cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT).

Background: The electrical latency during LV pacing evaluated by S-QRS is associated with local tissue property, and the S-QRS ≥37 ms has been previously proposed as an independent predictor of mechanical response to CRT.

Methods: This study included 82 consecutive patients with heart failure with reduced LV ejection fraction (≤35%) and a wide QRS complex (≥120 ms) who underwent CRT. Patients were divided into a short S-QRS group (SS-QRS; <37 ms) and a long S-QRS group (LS-QRS; ≥37 ms). The primary endpoint was total mortality, including LV assist device implantation or heart transplantation, whereas the secondary endpoint was total mortality or HF hospitalization.

Results: S-QRS was 25.9 ± 5.3 ms in SS-QRS and 51.5 ± 13.7 ms in LS-QRS (p < 0.01), and baseline QRS duration and electrical activation at the LV pacing site (i.e., Q-LV) were similar. During mean follow-up of 44.5 ± 21.1 months, 24 patients (29%) reached the primary endpoint, whereas the secondary endpoints were observed in 47 patients (57%). LS-QRS had significantly worse event-free survival for both endpoints. LS-QRS was an independent predictor of total mortality (hazard ratio: 2.6; 95% confidence interval: 1.11 to 6.12; p = 0.03) and the secondary composite events (hazard ratio: 2.4; 95% confidence interval: 1.31 to 4.33; p < 0.01).

Conclusions: The S-QRS ≥37 ms at the LV pacing site was a significant predictor of total mortality and HF hospitalization. S-QRS-guided optimal LV lead placement is critical in patients who receive CRT.

Keywords: S-QRS; cardiac resynchronization therapy; electrical latency; heart failure; hospitalization; mortality.

MeSH terms

  • Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Devices
  • Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy*
  • Electrocardiography
  • Heart Ventricles / diagnostic imaging
  • Humans
  • Treatment Outcome