Phase I Study of Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy plus Nivolumab and Urelumab or Cabiralizumab in Advanced Solid Tumors

Clin Cancer Res. 2021 Oct 15;27(20):5510-5518. doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-21-0810. Epub 2021 Jun 24.


Purpose: CD137 agonism and CSF1R blockade augment stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) and anti-programmed death-1 in preclinical models. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of SBRT with nivolumab+urelumab (CD137 agonist) or nivolumab+cabiralizumab (CSF1R inhibitor).

Patients and methods: This phase I clinical trial enrolled patients with advanced solid tumors that had progressed on standard therapies. SBRT was delivered to 1-4 metastases with nivolumab+urelumab or nivolumab+cabiralizumab given concurrently and following SBRT. Dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was the primary endpoint with anatomic location-specific SBRT doses deemed safe if ≤33% DLT frequency was observed. Secondary endpoints included RECISTv1.1 response, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and molecular correlative studies.

Results: Sixty patients were enrolled, and median follow-up for living patients is 13.8 months. Of these, 23 (38%) received SBRT+nivolumab+urelumab and 37 (62%) received SBRT+nivolumab+cabiralizumab. Seven patients (12%) experienced a DLT (n = 3 grade 3, n = 4 grade 4) in the following anatomic cohorts: abdominal/pelvic (3/17, 18%), liver (1/13, 8%), central lung (2/14, 14%), and peripheral lung (1/12, 8%). Of 41 patients radiographically evaluable for best overall response including 55 radiated and 23 unirradiated RECIST target lesions, 2 had complete responses (5%), 7 had partial responses (17%), 12 had stable disease (29%), and 20 had progression (49%). Median estimated PFS and OS are 3.0 months [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.9-4.8] and 17.0 months (95% CI, 6.8-undetermined), respectively. No patients with elevated pre-SBRT serum IL8 experienced a response.

Conclusions: SBRT to ≤4 sites with nivolumab+urelumab or nivolumab+cabiralizumab for treating advanced solid tumors is feasible with acceptable toxicity and modest antitumor activity.See related commentary by Rodriguez-Ruiz et al., p. 5443.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial, Phase I

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use*
  • Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use*
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoplasm Staging
  • Neoplasms / pathology
  • Neoplasms / therapy*
  • Nivolumab / therapeutic use*
  • Radiosurgery*
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Antibodies, Monoclonal
  • urelumab
  • Nivolumab